Having a problem model, it is possible to start developing a solution model.
The solution model is a general concept of how to get the desired result, which system transformations or actions are necessary to do it. In fact, it is necessary to clarify the method by which the goal set is achieved and to determine the means to implement this method.
Some problems can be solved by optimising the parameters of the useful system changing its parameters to improve them. It is possible to do it to some extent but a moment occurs when we approach the limit of optimisation possibilities and should make a qualitative transition. It should be taken into consideration that solution models provide a hint, a recommendation only and not a ready-made solution. An important role is played by the solver's intellectual effort, the ability to effectively apply this hint taking into account the specific circumstances of a specific problem.
Developing a solution model is directly related to which problem model we are going to transform.
These model are as follows:
Transformation of the Conditions in the Operational Area problem model
Here we need to understand what should be done to provide conditions and circumstances in the operational area addressing the disadvantage existing there. You can apply a variety of transformations here.
This can be introducing some new components or removing components with issues and replacing them with more appropriate ones. It can also be the actions necessary to have the desired conditions in the operational area described in the problem model. In the case of a complex structure of the operational area or physical inability to understand how a problem can be solved, it is appropriate to apply a simplified analogy of the process being improved.
To develop a solution model, the heuristic tools of the TRIZ can be used. They were developed in the TRIZ as a self-sufficient means of solving the problem, producing the final idea of a solution. Indeed, it is often the case that, by applying the relevant tool, we immediately get the idea of a solution, i.e. we already understand the method of solving the problem and the means to perform this method.
If we understand the purpose of the problem solution in general (the desired result) and the method to achieve this purpose, the heuristics can serve as clues specifying the method to solve the problem. To transform the problem model as the circumstances of the operational area, such tools as analogies, development lines of useful systems, standard solutions of inventive problems and others are provided for.
Example. Let us develop solution models and, if possible, find solutions for models of the problem of rapid liquid cooling.
Problem model. Near the cold wall, a layer of liquid which freezes quickly is present. What can be done for cooled and ready-to-freeze liquid to constantly go away from the wall and to be replaced with warmer liquid?
Solution model. Similar to other devices, install something like a blade stirrer inside the container.
The solution idea is an almost ready-made solution of the problem.
Transformation of the Actions in the Operational Area problem model
It is applied when we clearly understand the interaction among components in the operational area and what negative occurs at the same time. In this case, it is possible to consider several typical disadvantage diagrams and standard methods for addressing them.
This problem model transforms according to how it was built. If it is possible to make a decision just being aware of the disadvantage type, then it should be done. If a substance-field model was used, standard problem solutions are applied as a transformation tool.
Some of these diagrams are related to the operation of the tool, e.g. its insufficient or excessive efficiency is observed. A situation can occur when the tool necessary for the desired function is not present in the system. This occurs when it seems impossible to solve the problem while applying the original tool, and the necessity is to replace it with a new one with another mode of operation.
In this case, it is necessary to consider and write down a method by which it is possible to improve the situation in the operational area: if the tool is not efficient enough, improve its efficiency; if the tool is not available, replace it with an X component or an X system etc. Another possibility is a reverse harmful action when the object being processed destroys the tool. Here elimination or mitigation of this reverse action should be stated or some compensatory measures should be provided for.
Please note that both in transforming the first and the second models use the following tool is used standard problem solutions. The difference is that by transforming the first model the components of the operational area are considered in the first place, actions are assumed at the same time. When working with the second model, the focus is on transforming steps while components are considered as action carriers only.
Example of the problem model transformation
Problem model. To break a layer of ice, exposure to a mechanical impact device such as electrically-driven hammers is provided for. Such a device is quite complicated. A simpler method to perform this action should be found.
Solution model. It is necessary to make the container or liquid activate the action destroying the layer of ice on their own.
Solution idea: A device should be provided for to pump liquid through the container. The device can be simplified by using a single pump for multiple containers.
Transformation of the Technical Contradiction problem model
If an attempt to find an acceptable solution fails and improvement of the necessary parameter has resulted in deterioration of some other parameter, it is a symptom that the disadvantage being addressed is the result of a major contradiction. Thus, the optimisation attempt provides us with the source material for developing a technical contradiction.
To develop this model, two parameters of a useful system should be determined – the parameters which come into conflict when an attempt is made to improve one of them. This can be done both when processing the hypotheses put forward and when working with iterations of the solution stage. To transform such a problem model, the contradiction should be resolved.
The main tool for resolving technical contradictions is the principles, developed by G. S. Altshuller.
Example of the problem model transformation
Problem model. To break a layer of ice, a mechanical impact device such as electrically-driven hammers is provided for. However, it is quite complicated. It means that a contradiction occurs: improving the Cooling Speed parameter results in unacceptable deterioration of the Device Simplicity parameter.
Solution model. The list of the principles provides us with Principle 28 Mechanical Interaction Substitution. It means that the mechanical striker should be replaced with another one.
Solution idea: According to this clue, it is possible to make the container itself generate ice-destroying impacts. This can be achieved by making a container with flexible walls. If such a container is rolled back and forth, its walls will deform and the ice will break.
Transformation of the Physical Contradiction problem model
The most accurate and strict model illustrating the mutually exclusive requirements for the condition of one of the system components. A physical contradiction can be addressed if we specify a method to resolve the physical contradiction and separate conflicting requirements for a component parameter. This can be done using the traditional TRIZ approach as well as applying the special methods of transformation which are discussed here.
It often happens that hypotheses combined describe contradicting requirements for the same component parameter of the system. Such hypotheses should be carefully identified, and the basic physical contradictions should be developed on their basis. This will enable to further formulate the problem directly in the form of a physical contradiction which resolution will enable to find a strong solution to the problem.
Example of the problem model transformation
Problem modelThe problem is stated as a physical contradiction:
the liquid located next to the cold surface (wall or ice surface) should be warm so as not to freeze over the walls;
the liquid located next to the cold surface (wall or ice surface) is cold because it cools well.
Solution model. Divide conflicting requirements over time. Let warm liquid be next to the wall at one point in time and cold liquid at another point in time.
Solution idea: Apply vibration to the liquid container. Better yet, apply it to the tray in which the containers are installed. Owing to this, liquid will be actively mixed and no ice build-up will occur.
Work with the TRIZ Trainer
The input of this step is an abstract problem model. At the output, we should have the problem solution model.
This step is one of the most important ones in solving the problem. This is where we should have an abstract idea of solving the problem which will serve as a template for developing the object solution of the problem.