The substance-field simulation is developed and applied in the classical TRIZ for solving structurally simple problems. In the substance-field model, the components of the operational area are replaced with conditional “substances” and the methods of their interaction – the so-called “fields”. Hence the model name: Substance + field = substance-field.
So what is the substance and field in the substance-field model?
Substance. In the substance-field model, the concept of “substance” is interpreted much broader than in the conventional engineering practice. Not only substances per se (as in physics and chemistry) are understood as substances but also any simple and complex artificial and natural objects. For instance, if we consider the substance-field model of the car and road interaction, we disengage from the composition of these devices and consider the whole car as one substance and the road as another one.
Examples of the “substances”: copper sheet, molten aluminium, aircraft, ruler, steam, glass prism, lift etc.
Field. There is no strict correspondence of the physics terminology with respect to the field either. In the TRIZ, a "field" is usually defined as any action of one object on another one. These can be fields per se (electric, magnetic) and their derivatives (forces, flows), and any other interactions among substances.
Examples of the “fields”: gravity field, friction force, pressure, thermal field, ultrasound, magnetic field, chemical field, elastic forces, inertia forces etc.
The basic substance-field model is a triangle which corners have “substances” and “fields” indicated.
The main advantage of the substance-field simulation is that the whole variety of interaction of the components is reduced to a limited number of standard models. This enables to apply the powerful tool of the “System of Standard Solutions of Inventive Problems” to transform models. The language of the substance-field simulation can seem somewhat artificial. However, this circumstance is more than outweighted by the fact that, to transform substance-field models, a system of standard solutions of inventive problems has been developed. The research by G. S. Altschuller showed that a limited number of simple issues exists, and the patent analysis made it possible to determine typical (standard) methods of addressing the issues.
These methods are consistent with the laws of systems development which describe the change in the structure and components (substances and fields) to have better controllable technical systems, i.e. systems close to the ideal. When transforming substance-field models, it is necessary to have better matching of substances, fields, and structures for normal operation of the system.
Substance-field models are transformed either by completing them or, conversely, by destroying a harmful interaction and eliminating harmful connections. Further development of substance-fields is aimed at increasing their efficiency. When transforming substance-field models, their components (substances and fields) and structure can change. These changes can be implemented fully or partially, in space and time.
The standard solution is a universal transformation rule for a substance-field model. Standard solutions enable to apply jointly logical transformations of substance-field models and physical, chemical, and geometric effects [2,3]. The necessary standard is selected depending on the substance-field model of the problem. The selection criteria are the parameters of the substance-field model of the problem:
- the substance-field type (incomplete, chain, complex etc.);
- the type of interaction among components (harmful, insufficient, excessive etc.);
- limitations on permissible transformations.
All standards are divided into five classes:
Class 1. Construction and destruction of substance-field models
1.1. Substance-field synthesis
1.2. Substance-field destruction
Class 2. Development of substance-field models
2.1. Transition to complex substance-fields
2.2. Boosting substance-fields
2.3. Boosting by rhythm matching
2.4. Boosted substance-fields (comprehensively boosted substance-fields)
Class 3. Standards for transition to the supersystem and to the microlevel
3.1. Transition to bisystems and polysystems
3.2. Transition to the microlevel
Class 4. Measurement and detection standards
4.2. Synthesis of substance-field systems
4.3. Boosting measurement substance-fields
4.4. Transition to systems of boosted substance-fields
4.5. Directions of measurement-systems development
Class 5. Standard application standards
5.1. Introduction of a substance
5.2. Introduction of a field
5.3. Phase transitions
5.4. Features of applying physical effects
For more information on the standards system, please visit altshuller.ru